Saturday, July 16, 2016

R: List of IRISH LEGAL HISTORY BOOKS



http://ua_tuathal.tripod.com/booklist.html

Saturday, May 14, 2016

Roman Speak


Just a note of Interest. I find International News Sources and those commenting on them tend to use a great deal more  Roman, Greek or French rhetorical devices rms then in USA.

A::

Ad Hominem > In an argument, this is an attack on the person rather than on the opponent's ideas. It comes from the Latin meaning "against the man."


B::

C::

coups d'état

n. pl. coups d'état (ko͞o′) or coup d'états (dā-täz′)
The sudden overthrow of a government by a usually small group of persons in or previously in positions of authority.
[French : coup, blow, stroke + de, of + état, state.]



coup d'état (ˈkuː deɪˈtɑː; French ku deta)
n, pl coups d'état (ˈkuːz deɪˈtɑː; French ku deta)
(Government, Politics & Diplomacy) a sudden violent or illegal seizure of government
[French, literally: stroke of state]


D::

De facto De facto (/d ˈfækt//d-/,[1] Latin: [deː ˈfaktoː]) is aLatin expression that means "in fact, in reality, in actual existence, force, or possession, as a matter of fact" (literally "of fact").[2][3] In law, it often means "in practice but not necessarily ordained by law" or "in practice or actuality, but not officially established". It is commonly used in contrast to de jure (which means "according to (the) law"; literally "from law") when referring to matters of lawgovernance, or technique (such as standards) that are found in the common experience as created or developed without or contrary to a regulation. When discussing alegal situation, de jure designates what the law says, while de facto designates action of what happens in practice.

De jure
De jure (/d ˈʊər//d-/;[1][2] Classical Latinde iure [deː ˈjuːrɛ]) is an expression that means "of right, by right, according to law" (literally "from law"),[3] as contrasted with de facto, which means "in fact, in reality" (literally "from fact"). The terms de jure and de facto are used instead of "in law" and "in practice", respectively, when one is describing political or legal situations.


In a legal context, de jure is contrasted to de facto practices, where, for example, the people obey a contract as though there were a law enforcing it, yet there is no such law. A process known as "desuetude" may allow (de facto) practices to replace (de jure) laws that have fallen out of favor, locally.
desuetude
In lawdesuetude (/dɪˈsjɪˌtjd/ or /ˈdɛswɪtjd/; from the Frenchdésuétude, from the Latin:desuetudo English: outdated, no longer custom) is a doctrine that causes statutes, similar legislation or legal principles to lapse and become unenforceable by a long habit of non-enforcement or lapse of time. It is what happens to laws that are not repealed when they become obsolete. It is the legal doctrine that long and continued non-use of a law renders it invalid, at least in the sense that courts will no longer tolerate punishing its transgressors.

E::


F::

G::

Gradatim Ferociter, or “step by step, ferociously.”

I::

id est > i.e. stands for id est, which translates literally as “that is.” Sometimes it might be more useful, however, to translate it as “what that means is” or “that is to say.” 

Illegitimi non carborundum is a mock-Latin aphorism meaning "Don't let the bastards grind you down".


infrascriptus, infrascripta, infrascriptum (Latan)
adjective
below-written
Age: Medieval (11th-15th centuries)

L::


Latinisation is the practice of rendering a non-Latin name (or word)[1] in a Latin style. It is commonly found with historical personal names, with toponyms, or for the standard binomial nomenclature of the life sciences. It goes further than romanisation, which is the writing of a word in the Latin alphabet that is in another script (e.g., Cyrillic).

In the case of personal names it may be done to more closely emulate Latin authors, or to present a more impressive image. It is carried out by:
  • transforming the name into Latin sounds (e.g. Geber for Jabir), or
  • adding Latinate suffixes to the end of a name (e.g. Meibomius for Meibom), or
  • translating a name with a specific meaning into Latin (e.g. Venator for Cacciatore; both mean ‘hunter’), or
  • choosing a new name based on some attribute of the person (e.g. Daniel Santbechbecame Noviomagus, possibly from the Latin name for the town of Nijmegen).

M::

malum in se >
(mal-uhm in say) adv. Latin referring to an act that is "wrong in itself," in its very nature being illegal because it violates the natural, moral or public principles of a civilized society.


N::


nē plūs ultrā
1. The highest point, as of excellence or achievement; the ultimate.
2. The most profound degree, as of a condition or quality.
[Latin nē plūs ultrā, (go) no more beyond (this point) : nē, no + plūs, more + ultrā, beyond.]
nom de guerre
[nom duh gairFrench nawn duh ger
 

nounplural noms de guerre 
 [nomz duh gairFrench nawn duhger1.an assumed name, as one under which a person fights, paints, writes,etc.; pseudonym.

nom de plume
pen namenom de plume (/ˌnɒm də ˈplm/French: [nɔ̃ də plym]), or literary double is apseudonym adopted by an author. A pen name may be used to make the author's name more distinctive, to disguise his or her gender, to distance an author from some or all of his or her previous works, to protect the author from retribution for his or her writings, to combine more than one author into a single author, or for any of a number of reasons related to the marketing or aesthetic presentation of the work. The author's name may be known only to the publisher, or may come to be common knowledge.

O::

opprobrium:

n.
1. Disgrace arising from exceedingly shameful conduct; ignominy.
2. Scornful reproach or contempt: term of opprobrium.
3. Archaic A cause of shame or disgrace.
[Latin, from opprobrāreto reproach : ob-againstsee ob- + probrumreproachsee bher- in Indo-European roots.

op·pro·bri·um:n.

1. the disgrace or reproach incurred by shameful conduct.
2. the cause of such disgrace or reproach.
3. reproach; scorn.
[1650–60; < [Latin, from opprobrāre, to reproach : ob-, against; see ob- + probrum, reproach; see bher- in Indo-European roots.]

 (əˈproʊ bri əm) 

P::

Pacta sunt servanda:
 (Latin for 'agreements must be kept') 



plebiscite
[pleb-uh-sahyt, -sit] 
Spell  Syllables
Examples Word Origin
See more synonyms on Thesaurus.com
noun
1.
a direct vote of the qualified voters of a state in regard to some important public question.
2.
the vote by which the people of a political unit determine autonomy or affiliation with another country.
Origin of plebiscite Expand
LatinFrench

1525-15351525-35; < French < Latin plēbīscītum decree of the plebs, equivalent to plēbī (for plēbis, plēbēī genitive singular of plēbs, plēbēs plebs ) + scītum resolution, decree, noun use of neuter of scītus, past participle of scīscere to enact, decree, orig., to seek to know, learn, inchoative of scīre to know



Perfidious Albion is an anglophobic pejorative phrase used within the context of international relations and diplomacy to refer to alleged acts of diplomatic sleights, duplicity, treachery and hence infidelity (with respect to perceived promises made to or alliances formed with other nation states) by monarchs or governments of Britain(or England) in their pursuit of self-interest and the requirements of realpolitik.

Perfidious signifies one who does not keep his faith or word (from the Latin word "perfidia"), while Albion is derived from an ancient Celtic name for the British Isles.

praxis:

prax·is  (prăk′sĭs)
n. pl. prax·es (prăk′sēz′)
1. Practical application or exercise of a branch of learning.
2. Habitual or established practice; custom.
[Medieval Latin prāxis, from Greek, from prāssein, prāg-, to do.]
presumptive:
1:  based on probability or presumption <the presumptive nominee>
2:  giving grounds for reasonable opinion or belief
3:  being an embryonic precursor with the potential for forming a particular structure or tissue in the normal course of development <presumptive retina>
presumptively adverb



pseudonym:
pseudonym (UK pronunciation: /ˈsjuːdənɪm/ syoo-də-nim and US pronunciation: /ˈsdənɪm/soo-də-nim) or alias is a name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which can differ from his or her original or true name (orthonym).[1] Pseudonyms includestage names and user names (both called screen names), ring namespen names,nicknames, aliases, superhero identities and code names, gamer identifications, and regnal names of emperorspopes, and other monarchs. Historically, they have often taken the form of anagrams, Graecisms, and Latinisations, although there are many other methods of choosing a pseudonym.[2]
Pseudonyms are most usually adopted to hide an individual's real identity, as with writers'pen namesgraffiti artists' tags, resistance fighters' or terrorists' noms de guerre, and computer hackershandlesActors, musicians, and other performers sometimes use stage names, for example, to mask their ethnic backgrounds.

Q;;
R::
rhetorical device is a use of language that is intended to have an effect on its audience. Repetition, figurative language, and even rhetorical questions are all examples of rhetorical devices. You hear me?

S::

sine qua non

an essential condition; a thing that is absolutely necessary

T::
 tabula rasa >  a blank slate.
U::
V::
Valediction:
noun
1.an act of bidding farewell or taking leave.
2.an utterance, oration, or the like, given in bidding farewell or taking leave; valedictory.
Origin of valediction, Latin

1605-16151605-15; < Latin valedictiōn- (stem of valedictiō), equivalent to valedict(us), past participle of valedīcere (vale farewell + dictus, past participle o




val·e·dic·tionˌvaləˈdikSHən/
nounthe action of saying farewell.
"he spread his palm in valediction"

synonyms:farewellgoodbyeadieuleave-taking
parting words
"he departed without a valediction"
a statement or address made at or as a farewell.
plural noun: valedictions
"his official memorial valediction"
Valedictorian is an academic title of success used in the United States, Canada, Costa Rica, and the Philippines for the student who delivers the closing or farewell statement at a graduation ceremony (called a valedictory). The chosen valedictorian is often the student with the highest ranking among his/her graduating class.[1] The term is an Anglicizedderivation of the Latin vale dicere ("to say farewell"), historically rooted in the valedictorian's traditional role as the final speaker at the graduation ceremony. So the valedictory address generally is considered a final farewell to classmates, before they disperse to pursue their individual paths after graduating.

Friday, March 18, 2016

Córrguinech, Killing by 'heron (or crane) Magick

Red-Crowned-Crane

What Is Crane Magic:
A topic that seems to generate much interest is'Crane Magic'. This form of magic is properly called córrguinech. Lugh was a practicioner of Crane Magic, and used this against the Fomorii at the second Cath Maig Tuired (1). In fact, its use in the lore is always martial in context (2). That Crane Magic is associated with the Druids and Filidh of old does not negate the martial applications. There are also examples in the lore of druids and filidh being, or having been, warriors. In addition, Fergus Kelly in The Guide To Early Irish Law makes a statement that helps define it as a magic that kills. Kelly writes:
    "...some of their sorcery was effected through córrguinech, a term which seems to mean 'heron (or crane) killing', and apparently involved the recitation of a satire standing on one leg with one arm raised and one eye shut (in imitation of a heron's stance?)."(3)

    Ref. http://www.clannada.org/culture_crane.php


Tuesday, October 28, 2014

Irish words and Terms for the Brehon Druid's Moot users

A few fun Irish words and Terms for the Brehon Druid's Moot users: This is a work in progress!

The Brehon  Law was the native legal system of ancient Ireland.  It was altered a bit after the eight century by the  Danish and Anglo-Norman invasion  and then the  the English settlemens. Still is usage continued untill the the beginning of the seventeenth century when it was finally abolished.

Authorship: Most of this was written by Michael Ragan, http://www.danann.org/library/law/breh12.html and has just be relaid out by me to aid or BDM studies. GK
(a)-(z) Here is provided the a list of the Gaelic terms used in this article. The assumed pronunciations are shown by modified International Phonetic Alphabet symbols. The Gaelic term is given emboldened, followed by IPA phonetics, with the italicized definition. http://www.danann.org/library/law/breh12.html

A:
(a)
aigne / ag´n´a / advocate
aire / ar´e / freeman
aithech / ath´ech / commoner, churl
Amergin / ah´mehr´gihn / Poet of the Milesians
amuis / a´vus / attendant, bodyguard
Arae / ar´eh / charioteer
ard / ahrd´ / high ranking person
athgabál / ath´gava´l / distraint, recovery
-----------------------------------------------------
 Book of Acaill [Ack'ill]. > See Law Books.
aire [arra] > or chief
There were five main classes of people -
Kings of several grades, from the king of the tuath or cantred up to the king of Ireland:
Nobles, which class indeed included kings:
Non-noble Freemen with property:
Non-noble Freemen without property, or with some, but not sufficient to place them among the class next above :
The non-free clauses.
The first three - Kings, Nobles, non-noble Freemen with property-were the privileged classes ; a person belonging to these was an aire [arra] or chief.
Aithech (I) > 'plebeian,' 'farmer,' 'peasant,'
 [ah'-egh], > The next class - the fourth - the freemen with little or with no property, were céiles [kailas] or free tenants. They differed from the bo-aires only in not being rich enough to rank as aires or chiefs ; for the bo-aires were themselves céiles or rent-payers; and accordingly a man of the fourth class could become a bo-aire if he accumulated property enough: the amount being laid down in the Brehon Law. These céiles or tenants, or free rent- payers - corresponding with the old English ceorls - or churls- formed the great body of the farming class. They were called aithech [ah'-egh], i.e. 'plebeian,' 'farmer,' 'peasant,' -to distinguish them from the aires or chieftain grades: and the term féine or féne [faine], which means much the same as aitech, was also applied to them.
Amergin, > chief poet (Fíli) of the Milesians,
Anad (I)   > A stay of a   "Procedure by Distress"
If the offender refused to submit the case to the usual tribunal, or if he withheld payment after the case had been decided against him, or if a man refused to pay a just debt of any kind - in any one of these cases the plaintiff or the creditor proceeded by Distress; that is to say, he distrained or seized the cattle or other effects of the defendant. We will suppose the effects to be cattle. There was generally an anad or stay of one or more days on the distress; that is, the plaintiff went through the form of seizing the cattle, but did not remove them. During the stay the cattle remained in the possession of the defendant or debtor, no doubt to give him time to make up his mind as to what course to take, viz. either to pay the debt or to have the case tried before the brehon: but the plaintiff had all the time a claim on them. If the debt was not paid at the end of the lawful stay, the plaintiff, in the presence of certain witnesses, removed the animals and put them in a pound, the expense of feeding and tending being paid out of the value of the cattle. If the debtor persisted in refusing to settle the case, the creditor sold or kept as many of the cattle as paid the debt.
B:
(b)
banfili / ban´fih´lih´ / , wise woman
bérla féini / b´eh:rluh fe:nih´ / literally language of the free people. Early legal language
bó inláeg / bo´in´lah:g / pregnant cow
bo-aíre /bo´ ah´reh / free farmer
bothach / bo´thach /·cottier, one who lives in a hut
Brehon / breh´hon / see breitheamh
Breitheamh / brih´them / Arbitrator, law historian
Brithem / see breitheamh
briugu / briu´gu / hospitaller
brughaid / bru´aid·/ see briug
---------------------------------------------------------
> a Cow (E)
Bó-aire (I) > Cow Owner (E)
A person belonging to the other class of aire - a non-noble rent-paying freeman with property (No.3, above) - had no land of his own, his property consisting of cattle and other movable goods; hence he was called a Bó-aire, i.e. a ' cow-chief' (bó, 'a cow'). He should rent a certain amount of land, and possess a certain amount of property in cattle and other goods, to entitle him to rank as an aire. As in the case of the nobles, there were several classes of bo-aires, ranking according to their property. If a person belonging to the highest class of bo-aires could prove that he had twice as much property as was required for the lowest rank of noble, and complied with certain other conditions and formalities, and also provided his father and grandfather had been aires who owned land, he was himself entitled to take rank as a noble of the lowest rank.
Brehon (I) > Judge,  Judge in Ireland  was called a brehon. The name Brehon is an Anglicization for the name Breitheamh, the scholars of law.
  To become a Brehon, the potential legal expert had to go through a rigorous, well-defined disciplined course of study. Following completion of the course, the potential Brehon then was required to submit to an examination of already practicing Brehons. Then, only if the candidate was found worthy was he or she permitted to enter the profession. In ancient times, the Brehon was seen as a mysterious individual of inspiration over whom deity kept watch. It was believed that if a Brehon deviated from the truth, great blotches would appear on his or her cheeks. The traditional badge of office was a torque, which was believed, would tighten when false statement was made, and loosen when truth was given. The well known Brehon, Moraann, son of Carbery Cinncat (a Munster King in the first century) wore a sin or chain of gold which functioned in such fashion.
Brehon Law > When It Began pre 2,300 BC?
We will likely never know just when the rudiments of Brehon Law were laid down. The first mention of law in ancient texts are casual comments that shed little light. For example, there is the brief mention of the Firbolg and Tuatha de Danann negotiating "…under the Laws of Battle," during the prelude to the First Battle of Moyturra. There is also brief mention that Amergin, chief poet (Fíli) of the Milesians, was skilled in "Law Craft." Such references are hardly definitive. Though we don't have an exact date for the birth of the Law, there are clues that indicate development during the bronze age (2,300 to 0900 BC). For example, the lack of capital punishment and fines for major offenses was quite common throughout Europe during the bronze age and very reminiscent of the Irish Law. The Warrior classes that developed during the iron age took a much harsher approach to punishment including death by various means. For this reason and others, it appears that Brehon Law pre-dated the iron age.
We also do not know which of the early Irish cultures planted and nurtured the Brehon seed. However, since the late bronze-age Milesians were of a warrior class aristocracy, the absence of capital punishment suggests another and earlier culture. It therefor seems logical to credit the middle bronze age Tuatha de Danann with major contribution to formation of the Brehon Law, if not outright development. Whatever the case, major development of at least a rudimentary form of the law apparently began between the 18th and 13th centuries BC. A Matter of Honor
Brehon Law continued to remain the law of the Irish until finally extinguished during the Cromwellian onslaught of the 17th century. The durability of the Law for nearly 3-millenium is astounding. The reason for its unparalleled strength and longevity was the sense of honor held by the people whom it governed. The laws were laws of users. That is, they attained their authority from public opinion. They were an expression of the moral power of the people. That moral power was the code of honor reflected throughout both ancient law and wisdom texts. An individuals word was his or her bond.
        As laws of users, no law could be changed without approval of the people. Thus any enactment of a new law or a modification to an existing law could only be accomplished in open forum of the assembled people. Thus though Rí and Noble might campaign for a specific law, it took a majority vote of all tribal free citizens to effect enactment. The Brehon Law truly was a Law of the people, by the people and for the people.



Bérla Féini
[Bairla-faina] > The oldest dialect of the Irish language, was what the Brehon Laws were written in. Which even in the ninth centruy was so difficult that persons about to become brehons had to be specially instructed in it. A bit like use of Latain in our modern Laws.

Bracelet (E) > Flesc (I) Worn on the arm as a mark of owners dignity or Aire.
Brewy (I) > Keeper of a hostel for travellers, who had flocks and herds. .
C:
 (c)
cáin / ka:n / Law of province or nation
céile ·/ ke:l´e / free memberss of the clan
clann / klan / members of a tribal unit descended from a common ancestor
coinmed / koN´v´ed / billelting
colpthac / kolp´hach / two year old heifer
cor bel / kor bel / verbal contract
cumal / kuval / female slave
-------------------------------------------------
Cail'eh (I)
Céile > The tribesman who placed himself under the protection of a chief, and who held land, whether it was the private property of the lessor or a part of the general tribe-land, was, as already explained, a Céile [cail'eh] or tenant; also called féine and aithech, i.e. a plebeian, farmer, or rent-payer. But a man who takes land must have stock - cows and sheep for the pasture-land, horses or oxen to carry on the work of tillage. A small proportion of the ceiles had stock of their own, but the great majority had not. Where the tenant needed stock it was the custom for the chief to give him as much as he wanted at certain rates of payment. This custom of giving and taking stock on hire was universal in Ireland, and was regulated in great detail by the Brehon Law.
Clan (I) > The Clan or house was still larger. Clann means 'children,' and the word therefore implied descent from one ancestor. The word fine [finna] usually meant a group of persons related by blood within certain degrees of consanguinity, all residing in the same neighbourhood; but it was often applied in a much wider sense.
Clann (I) > children
The Clan or house was still larger. Clann means 'children,' and the word therefore implied descent from one ancestor. The word fine [finna] usually meant a group of persons related by blood within certain degrees of consanguinity, all residing in the same neighbourhood; but it was often applied in a much wider sense. The Tribe (tuath) was made up of several septs, clans, or houses, and usually claimed, like the subordinate groups, to be descended from a common ancestor. The adoption of strangers-sometimes individuals, sometimes whole groups - into the family or clan was common; but it required the consent of the fine or circle of near relations - formally given at a court meeting. From all this it will be seen that in every tribe there was much admixture; and the theory of common descent from one ancestor became a fiction, except for the leading families, who kept a careful record of their genealogy.
Collor > sín [sheen]
The great brehon, Morann, son of Carbery Kinncat (king of Ireland in the first century), wore a sín [sheen] or collar round his neck,
which tightened when he delivered a false judgement, and expanded again when he delivered the true one.
Coiney (I)
Coinmed > Every tenant and every tradesman had to give his chief a yearly or half-yearly tribute, chiefly food supplies - cows, pigs, corn, bacon, butter, honey,
malt for making ale, etc.- the amount chiefly depending on the quantity of land he held and on the amount of stock he hired. Some tenants were obliged to give coinmed [coiney], that is to say, the chief was privileged to go with a retinue, for one or more days to the house of the tenant, who was to lodge and feed them for the time. This was an evil custom, liable to great abuse ; and it was afterwards imitated by the Anglo-Norman chiefs, who called it coyne and livery; which they chiefly levied from their own people, the English settlers. They committed great excesses, and their coyne and livery was far worse than the Irish coinmed, so that it came at last to be forbidden by the English law.
Cow(E) > ' (bó, 'a cow').
Cow Owner (E) > Bó-aire (I)
A person belonging to the other class of aire - a non-noble rent-paying freeman with property (No.3, above) - had no land of his own, his property consisting of cattle and other movable goods; hence he was called a Bó-aire, i.e. a ' cow-chief' (bó, 'a cow'). He should rent a certain amount of land, and possess a certain amount of property in cattle and other goods, to entitle him to rank as an aire. As in the case of the nobles, there were several classes of bo-aires, ranking according to their property. If a person belonging to the highest class of bo-aires could prove that he had twice as much property as was required for the lowest rank of noble, and complied with certain other conditions and formalities, and also provided his father and grandfather had been aires who owned land, he was himself entitled to take rank as a noble of the lowest rank.
Cumal (I) > The value of three cows or land that would support three cows.
Cuinal (I) .> Compensation payment.
D:

(d)
daer-fudir / da´r fu´ir / bonded tenants without rights
dáilem / da:l´ev /·food server
daírt / daR´t / yearling heifer
dartaid / daR´tid / yearling bullock
dercaid /·derkid´/ lookut, watchman
dire / di:r´e / payment of fine
doernemed /·do´ir nev´id / lower class of the priviliged
Druí, druíh / drooy / wise one - may also be spelled Draí, Draoí, Draoí or Druíidh
----------------------------------------------
Dai (I)
Dálaige
Dawlee > Professional lawyers, advocates, or pleaders.
In each court - besides the brehon who sat in judgement - there were one or more professional lawyers, advocates, or pleaders, called, in Cormac 's Glossary, dálaige [dawlee] and dai who conducted the cases for their clients; and the presiding brehon judge had to hear the pleadings for both sides before coming to a decision. Whether the court was held in a building or in the open air, there was a platform of some kind on which the pleader stood while addressing the court.
E:
(e)
éiric, éiraic / e:rik / fixed penalty
--------------------------------------------
Errick (I)
Eric (I) > The Compensation  fine for homicide or bodily injury of any kind.
Homicide or bodily injury of any kind was atoned for by a fine called Eric [errick]. The injured person brought the offender before a brehon, by whom the case was tried and the exact amount of the eric was adjudged. Many modifying circumstances had to be taken into account - the actual injury, the rank of the parties, the intention of the wrong-doer, the provocation, the amount of set-off claims, etc. - so that the settlement called for much legal knowledge, tact, and technical skill on the part of the brehon - quite as much as we expect in a lawyer of the present day.

In case of homicide the family of the victim were entitled to the eric. If the culprit did not pay, or absconded, leaving no property, his fine or family were liable. If he refused to come before a brehon, or if, after trial, the eric fine was not paid by him or his family, then he might be lawfully killed. The eric for bodily injury depended, to some extent, on the "dignity" of the part injured: if it was the forehead, or chin, or any other part of the face, the eric was greater than if the injured part was covered by raiment. Half the eric for homicide was due for the loss of a leg, a hand, an eye, or an ear; but in no case was the collective eric for such injuries to exceed the "body-fine " -i.e. the eric for homicide.
F:

(f)
fáithliaig / fa:th´lee-ha / seer physician
féine / fe:n´i / free people
fénechas / fe:n´echas /; traditional law
fénnid /·fe:N´id´ / warrior
fer ·/ fer / man
fer midboth / fer·mid´bo / man of middle huts or semi-independent youth
Fíli ·/ fil´i / wise one
fine ·/ fin´e / family, near kin
Firbolg ·/ fir bolg / men of the bags, first Celtic invaders of Ireland
Flaith / flah´ / noble
forgill / for´g´el / superior testimony
fuidir / fuj´ir´ / semi-free tenant
----------------------------------------------------

Faine (I)
Féine (I)
Féne (I) > Aithech or 'plebeian,' 'farmer,' 'peasant,'
The land held by the féine or free tenants was either a part of the tribe-land, or was the private property of some flaith or noble, from whom they rented it. Everywhere in the literature, especially in the laws, the féine or free farming classes are spoken of as a most important part of the community - as the foundation of society, and as the ultimate source of law and authority.
Fasting (E) > Procedure by Fasting
In some cases before distress was resorted to, a curious custom came into play -the plaintiff "fasted on" the defendant It was done in this way. The plaintiff, having served due notice, went to the house of the defendant, and, sitting before the door, remained there without food ; and as long as he remained, the defendant was also obliged to fast. It may be inferred that the debtor generally yielded before the fast was ended, i.e. either paid the debt or gave a pledge that he would settle the case. This fasting process - which exists still in India - was regarded with a sort of superstitious awe ; and it was considered outrageously disgraceful for a defendant not to submit to it. It is pretty evident that the man who refused to abide by the custom, not only incurred personal danger, but lost all character, and was subject to something like what we now call a universal boycott, which in those days no man could bear. He had in fact to fly and become a sort of outlaw.
Feis (I) > An assembly, or National assembly.
Courts for the trial of legal cases, as well as meetings of representative people to settle local affairs, were often held in the open - sometimes on green little hills, and sometimes in buildings. There was a gradation of courts, from the lowest - something like our petty sessions - to the highest, the great national assembly whether at Tara or elsewhere -representing all Ireland. Over each court a member of the chieftain or privileged classes presided : the rank of the president corresponded to the rank of the court; and his legal status, duties, powers, and privileges were very strictly defined. The over-king presided over the National Feis or assembly.
Fénechas  (I) > Irish law of the Féine or Féne (Brehon Law) What is today known as the "Brehon Law" is more properly known as Fénechas, the law of the Féine, the free land tillers.
Fíli > Wise one,  poet  of the Milesians
Finna (I)
Fine > Usually meant a group of persons related by blood within certain degrees of consanguinity, all residing in the same neighbourhood; but it was often applied in a much wider sense.
Flah (I) > Noble
Flaith (I) > Noble
Flaiths (I) > Nobles
The Nobles were those who had land as their own property, for which they did not pay rent : they were the owners of the soil - the aristocracy. An aire of this class was called a Flaith [flah], i.e. a noble, a chief, a prince. There were several ranks of nobles, the rank depending chiefly o
the amount of landed property.

Flesc (I) .> Bracelet often wore on the arm
The three preceding main classes-kings, nobles, and bo-aires - were all aires, chiefs, or privileged people : the first two being flaiths or noble aires, the third, non-noble aires, i.e. free tenants, with property sufficient to entitle them to the position of aire. All three had some part in the government of the country and in the administration of the law, as kings, tanists, nobles, military chiefs, magistrates, and persons otherwise in authority; and they commonly wore a flesc or bracelet on the arm as a mark of their dignity.

Free land-tillers (E) > Féine or Féne.
Fudir (i)
Fudirs (I) > Numerous class of very poor unfree tenants.
There was a numerous class of very poor unfree tenants called fudirs, who were generally in a very wretched condition. They were tenants at will, having no right in their holdings. A fudir was completely at the mercy of his chief, who might turn him off at any time, and who generally rackrented him so as to leave barely enough for subsistence.
G:
(g)
gabhalaichean / ga´val´kin / redistribution of land
gell ·/ gel´ / a pledge to protect one's honor
giall ·/ giall´ / hostage
gobae ·/ goveh / blacksmith
-----------------------------------------------
Gavelkind (I) > Descent of Land by Gavelkind.-When a tenant who held a part of the tribe-land died, his farm did not go to his children: but the whole of the land belonging to the fine or sept was redivided or gavelled among all the male adult members of the sept - including the dead man's adult sons. The domain of the chief, and all land that was private property, were exempt. The redistribution by gavelkind on each occasion extended to the clan or sept - not beyond. Davies complains, with justice, that this custom prevented the tenants from making permanent improvements.
Glaisín (I)
Glasheen > Woadplants for dyeing.
Gaveled (I) > The redividng of land inheritance  among all landholders of the sept
H:
I:
J:
 Judge (E) > A Judge in Ireland  was called a brehon.
K:
L:
(l)
Liaig ·/ Lee-aj / leech physician
lobad ·/ lovad / decay of forfeiture
log-enech ·/ lo:g eNag / honor price
---------------------------------------------
Law > Native Irish law is commonly known as the "Brehon Law".
Its proper designation is Fénechas,
i.e. the law of the Féine or Féne, or free land-tillers.

Law Books > Ref 01. The brehons had collections of laws in volumes or tracts, all in the Irish language, by which they regulated their judgements, and which thos
of them who kept law-schools expounded to their scholars ; each tract treating of one subject or one group of subjects.
Many of these have been preserved, and of late years the most important have been published, with translations, forming five printed volumes
(with a sixth consisting of a valuable Glossary to the preceding five).
Of the tracts contained in these volumes, the two largest and most important are the Senchus Mór [Shanahus More] and the Book of Acaill [Ack'ill].
In the ancient Introduction to the Senchus Mor the following account is given of its original compilation. In the year 438 A.D. a collection of the pagan laws was made at the request of St. Patrick; and Laegaire [Laery] King of Ireland, appointed a committee of nine learned and eminent persons including himself and St. Patrick, to revise them. At the end of three years these nine produced a new code, from which everything that clashed with the Christian doctrine had been carefully excluded. This was the Senchus Mór.
The very book left by St. Patrick and the others has been long lost. Successive copies were made from time to time with commentaries and explanations appended, till the manuscripts we now possess were produced. The existing manuscript copies of the Senchus Mór consist
The original text, written in a large hand with wide spaces between the lines
An introduction to the text:
Commentaries on the text, in a smal1er hand
Glosses or explanations on words and phrases of the text, in a hand still smaller: commentaries and, glosses commonly written in the spaces between the lines of text, but often on the margins. Of these the text, as might be expected, is the most ancient.



M:

(m)
mensal / ·men´sal / land dedicated to the Rí for specific purpose
Midach ·/ midach / medical doctor
midboth ·/ mid´boh´ /
Milesians · / mi´le´shyans´ / the Gaedels - last Celtic invaders of Ireland, since the late bronze-age Milesians were of a warrior class aristocracy
Mogturredh / moy´too´reh / legendary site of battle
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
Mensal (I) land > Property set aside to support the additional responsibilities of rulership.
Milesians > The Gaedels - last Celtic invaders of Ireland. waged war against the Tuatha de Danann  see First Battle of Moyturra.

N:
(n)
Nemedh ·/ nev´ed / privileged person
------------------------------------------------------
Noble (E) > Flaith (I)
Nobles (E) > Flaiths (I)
The Nobles were those who had land as their own property, for which they did not pay rent : they were the owners of the soil - the aristocracy. An aire of this class was called a Flaith [flah], i.e. a noble, a chief, a prince. There were several ranks of nobles, the rank depending chiefly on the amount of landed property.
Non-free Casses of people.
  > So far we have treated of freemen, that is those who enjoyed all the rights of the tribe, of which the most important was the right to the use of a portion of the tribe-land and commons We now come to treat of the non-free classes. The term 'non-free' does not necessarily mean that they were slaves. The non-free people were those who had not the full rights of the free people of the tribe. They had no claim to any part of the tribe-land, though they were permitted, under strict conditions, to till little plots for mere subsistence. This was by far the most serious of their disabilities. Their standing varied, some being absolute slaves, some little removed from slavery, and others far above it. That slavery pure and simple existed in Ireland in early times we know from the law-books as well as from history; and that it continued to a comparatively late period is proved by the testimony of Giraldus Cambrensis - twelfth century-who relates that it was a common custom among the English to sell their children and other relatives to the Irish for slaves - Bristol being the great mart for the trade. From this, as well as from our own records, we see that some slaves were imported. But the greater number were native Irish, who, from various causes had lost their liberty and had been reduced to a state of slavery.

O:
(o)
ócaire ·/ o:gar´e / loest grade of freeman
Ollam / oL´av / expert, master or chief
---------------------------------------------------------
O'Donovan > One he two great Irish scholars, who translated the laws included in the five printed volumes, after a life-long study.
O'Curry > One he two great Irish scholars, who translated the laws included in the five printed volumes, after a life-long study.
P:
Q:
R:
(r)
Rannaire ·/ RaNir´e / divider, carver (of meats)
Rí ·/ Ri: / Ruler
ruírech / rur:reh·/ ruler over more than one territory
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
S:
(s)
saer / sair / wright, carpenter
saer-fuidír / sair fuj´ir / highest of the fuidir class
Samaisc / sav´ishk /· three-year-old heifer
Scepul / skrebul / ·scruple, unit of value
Senchléithe ·/ shen´ch´l´e:th´e / hereditary serf
sept / sept ´/ branch of a clan
sét / she:d / unit of value
sin ·/ shin´ / chain neck-choker
---------------------------------------
Senchus > In the Gaelic language ‘senchus’ (pronounced shen-uh-kuhs) means “history”
Etymology
From Old Irish senchas, senchus (“old tales, ancient history, tradition; genealogy; traditional law”).
Noun
seanchas m (genitive seanchais)
(literary) traditional law; ancient history and tradition; genealogical information
lore, tradition; (act of) storytelling
(act of) talking, chatting, seeking information; informative talk, discussion
- the Ancient Genealogy, History, and Brehon Law of  Gaelic Ireland


Senchus Mór (I)
[Shanahus More] > Of the tracts contained in these volumes, the two largest and most important are the Senchus Mór
Sept (I) > The people were formed into groups of various sizes, from the family upwards. The Family was the group consisting of the living parents and all their descendants. The Sept was a larger group, descended from common parents long since dead: but this is an imported word, brought into use in comparatively late times. All the members of a sept were nearly related, and in later times bore the same surname.
sín [sheen] > Collor
The great brehon, Morann, son of Carbery Kinncat (king of Ireland in the first century), wore a sín [sheen] or collar round his neck,
which tightened when he delivered a false judgement, and expanded again when he delivered the true one.
T:
(t)
Techt ·/ techt / courier, messenger
troscud / troskud·/ legal fasting
túath / too´ah / tribe, tribal territory
Tuatha de Danann / too´aha deh da´nahn / people of the Goddess Danu
tuathe / see túath
tuíseo / too-ish´o / person of precedence
-----------------------------------------------------
Tanistry (I) > Descent of Land by Tanistry. The land held by the chief as mensal estate descended, not to his heir, but to the person who succeeded him in the chiefship. This is what is known as descent by Tanistry.
Tradesmen (E) > formed another very important class of freemen. The greater number belonged to the fourth class - freemen without property. Some crafts were
‘noble' or privileged, of which the members enjoyed advantages and privileges beyond those of other trades: and some high-class craftsmen belonged to the class aire or chief.
Tuath (I) > Tribe
The Tribe  was made up of several septs, clans, or houses, and usually claimed, like the subordinate groups, to be descended from a common ancestor. The adoption of strangers-sometimes individuals, sometimes whole groups - into the family or clan was common; but it required the consent of the fine or circle of near relations - formally given at a court meeting. From all this it will be seen that in every tribe there was much admixture; and the theory of common descent from one ancestor became a fiction, except for the leading families, who kept a careful record of their genealogy.
U:
(u)
uasal / oo-ah´shal /·of noble birth
Ungae / oongeh /· ounce
..............................................

References and ackowledgements:
Ref. 01 http://www.alia.ie/tirnanog/sochis/iv.html  Much of this was condensed from this fine small work on Brehon Law.

What is today known as the "Brehon Law" is more properly known as Fénechas, the law of the Féine, the free land tillers.

Special notes
====================================
Here is provided the a list of the Gaelic terms . The assumed pronunciations are shown by modified International Phonetic Alphabet symbols. The Gaelic term is given emboldened, followed by IPA phonetics, with the italicized definition.
A
aigne / ag´n´a / advocate
aire / ar´e / freeman
aithech / ath´ech / commoner, churl
Amergin / ah´mehr´gihn / Poet of the Milesians
amuis / a´vus / attendant, bodyguard
Arae / ar´eh / charioteer
ard / ahrd´ / high ranking person
athgabál / ath´gava´l / distraint, recovery
banfili / ban´fih´lih´ / , wise woman
B
bérla féini / b´eh:rluh fe:nih´ / literally language of the free people. Early legal language
bó inláeg / bo´in´lah:g / pregnant cow
bo-aíre /bo´ ah´reh / free farmer
bothach / bo´thach /·cottier, one who lives in a hut
Brehon / breh´hon / see breitheamh
Breitheamh / brih´them / Arbitrator, law historian
Brithem / see breitheamh
briugu / briu´gu / hospitaller
brughaid / bru´aid·/ see briugu
C
cáin / ka:n / Law of province or nation
céile ·/ ke:l´e / free memberss of the clan
clann / klan / members of a tribal unit descended from a common ancestor
coinmed / koN´v´ed / billelting
colpthac / kolp´hach / two year old heifer
cor bel / kor bel / verbal contract
cumal / kuval / female slave


D
daer-fudir / da´r fu´ir / bonded tenants without rights
dáilem / da:l´ev /·food server
daírt / daR´t / yearling heifer
dartaid / daR´tid / yearling bullock
dercaid /·derkid´/ lookut, watchman
dire / di:r´e / payment of fine
doernemed /·do´ir nev´id / lower class of the priviliged
Druí, druíh / drooy / wise one - may also be spelled Draí, Draoí, Draoí or Druíidh


E
éiric, éiraic / e:rik / fixed penalty
F
fáithliaig / fa:th´lee-ha / seer physician
féine / fe:n´i / free people
fénechas / fe:n´echas /; traditional law
fénnid /·fe:N´id´ / warrior
fer ·/ fer / man
fer midboth / fer·mid´bo / man of middle huts or semi-independent youth
Fíli ·/ fil´i / wise one
fine ·/ fin´e / family, near kin
Firbolg ·/ fir bolg / men of the bags, first Celtic invaders of Ireland
Flaith / flah´ / noble
forgill / for´g´el / superior testimony
fuidir / fuj´ir´ / semi-free tenant


G
gabhalaichean / ga´val´kin / redistribution of land
gell ·/ gel´ / a pledge to protect one's honor
giall ·/ giall´ / hostage
gobae ·/ goveh / blacksmith


L
Liaig ·/ Lee-aj / leech physician
lobad ·/ lovad / decay of forfeiture
log-enech ·/ lo:g eNag / honor price


M
mensal / ·men´sal / land dedicated to the Rí for specific purpose
Midach ·/ midach / medical doctor
midboth ·/ mid´boh´ /
Milesians · / mi´le´shyans´ / the Gaedels - last Celtic invaders of Ireland
Mogturredh / moy´too´reh / legendary site of battle


N
Nemedh ·/ nev´ed / privileged person


O
ócaire ·/ o:gar´e / loest grade of freeman
Ollam / oL´av / expert, master or chief

R
Rannaire ·/ RaNir´e / divider, carver (of meats)
Rí ·/ Ri: / Ruler
ruírech / rur:reh·/ ruler over more than one territory


S
saer / sair / wright, carpenter
saer-fuidír / sair fuj´ir / highest of the fuidir class
Samaisc / sav´ishk /· three-year-old heifer
Scepul / skrebul / ·scruple, unit of value
Senchléithe ·/ shen´ch´l´e:th´e / hereditary serf
sept / sept ´/ branch of a clan
sét / she:d / unit of value
sin ·/ shin´ / chain neck-choker


T
Techt ·/ techt / courier, messenger
troscud / troskud·/ legal fasting
túath / too´ah / tribe, tribal territory
Tuatha de Danann / too´aha deh da´nahn / people of the Goddess Danu
tuathe / see túath
tuíseo / too-ish´o / person of precedence
U
uasal / oo-ah´shal /·of noble birth
Ungae / oongeh /· ounce